Leave Encashment: Calculation & Taxation

All salaried have different type of leaves namely: Sick Leave, Casual Leave, Earned/Privilege leave, etc. If employees take lesser leaves than they are eligible for, most employers encash the left over leaves either annually or at the time of leaving the company. Of all types of leaves only earned or privilege leave is encashable.

Leave Encashment Calculation:

There is no fixed rule as how much leaves can be carried forward every year or how many leaves can be encashed. Most employers have their own rules. Usually the basic salary and dearness allowance is taken in consideration for calculation of the amount.

Tax on Leave Encashment:

The tax of leave encashment is dependent on if you are government or private sector employee, or if you are encashing it at the time of retirement or mid-way. We take each case separately.

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At the time of Retirement:

Government Employee:

The entire amount received as leave encashment is tax free.

Non Government Employee:

The leave encashment for private sector employees is stated in Section 10 (10AA) and is minimum of the following 4 factors:

  1. Amount received as leave encashment
  2. Maximum cap as stated by government – Rs 3 Lakhs
  3. Last 10 months average basic salary & dearness allowance before leaving the job
  4. Cash equivalent of the leave balance, subject to maximum of 30 days for each completed year of service

We take an example to make the above calculation clear.

Rita is a non-government employee who receives Rs 6 lakh as her leave encashment at the time of retirement. She worked here for 25 years and was eligible for 45 earned leaves every year. Below is the calculation:

  • No. Of earned leaves Rita was eligible for = 45 X 25 = 1,125 days
  • She used 585 leaves over her service period
  • Leaves eligible for leave encashment = 1125 – 585  = 540 days (18 months)
  • Average last 10 months basic + dearness allowance = Rs 25,000

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Tax Calculation:

The tax exemption would be minimum of the below 4 points:

  • Amount received as leave encashment – Rs 6 Lakhs
  • Maximum cap as stated by government – Rs 3 Lakhs
  • Last 10 months average basic salary & dearness allowance before leaving the job – Rs 2,50,000 (Rs 25000 X 10)
  • Cash equivalent of the leave balance, subject to maximum of 30 days for each completed year of service – Rs 1,37,500 (as per calculation below)

Earned leave eligibility as per above rule = 30 days X 25 = 750 days

Leaves used = 585 days

Leaves eligible for encashment (as per above rule) = 750 – 585 = 165 days (5.5 months)

Cash equivalent = 5.5 X 25000 = Rs 1,37,500

Tax exemption = Rs 1,37,500

Taxable component = Rs 6,00,000 – Rs 1,37,500 = Rs 4,62,500

Post tax deduction the leave encashment would vary from Rs 3.2 lakh (in the 30% tax slab) to Rs 4.15 lakh (in 10% tax slab)

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At the time of Resignation:

There are differences between tax experts on the tax treatment of leave encashment at the time of resignation. Some consider it as taxable while others other consider the tax treatment same as at the time of retirement. We support the later:

The leave encashment is tax free for the government employee and the calculation is same as above for non-government employees. However the limit of Rs 3 lakh for non-government employee is for the entire lifetime.  In case you already got Rs 1 lakh while leaving your job, going forward you can only have Rs 2 lakhs as tax exempted leave encashment.

Leave Encashment - Calculation and Taxation
Leave Encashment – Calculation and Taxation

Leave encashment while in Service

If you encash leaves partially or fully while in service the income from encashment is fully taxable for both government and non-government employee.

Leave encashment on Death

The leave encashment is tax free when paid to the nominees or legal heirs at the death of employee.

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Important Points:

  • Leave encashment is only for completed years of service. If you have 20 years and 7 months of service, the calculation would be for 20 years only.
  • There is no statutory compulsion to have Leave Encashment Policy. So your employer may or may not have leave encashment at their discretion.
  • Government employees can have maximum of 10 months of leave accumulation and hence encashment

31 thoughts on “Leave Encashment: Calculation & Taxation”

  1. Dear sir.
    I am working in a private company. I have changed job during Feb 2020. I got rs 106503 as leave encashment and Rs 130047 as gratuity. Immediately after 02days I joined New company..is any amount texable as above said..my basic salary for Last 10 month was 25080 per month…

  2. Sir,
    I am an employee of Dept. of Telecommuncation from 13.10.81 to 30.09.1999 and absorbed to BSNL (PSU) from 01.10.2000 till my retirement 31.05.2018. My leave encashment is for the DOT period Rs. 5,56,144 and BSNL period Rs. 3,36,066. How much amount is eligible for me as tax exemption.

  3. Dear Sir…

    @ time working if Xyz Person claim P L or E L they had given full day amount… after resignation also they have to give full Day amount l, rules can’t be changed, rules as to be same….. how they have given Basic or Net amount same as to be give.

    9066694447

  4. Dear Sir,

    Can you please help to guide will i be able receive leave encashment for the service of 10months. My total leave is 21days. and i have11 days remaining leaves. how much will i be able to get the amount.

  5. Dear Sir,

    Please suggest me after 11 month completed some personal issue ,i had resigned my job and complete 45 notice period ,
    Can i have able to Leave Encashment

  6. If one person retires on 31/10/18 .. and done services for 20 year and 8 month … Pay scale is 3000-100-5000 ….. Then how u will calculate leave salary’s formula calculation i.e. 10 months avg salary immediately preceding month of retirement … Plz tell me calculation

  7. dear sir,

    plz guide , i resigned from my job and i have 30 EL leaves , i have to serve 3 month notice but due to some urgency i still able to complete 2 months , now they want 1 month salary from me …. my question is what amount should i have to pay the actual Basic Salary or Net i have actual with drawn or second question is ” HOW EL leaves calculated either with basic salary or fully amount which we got monthy ???”

    plz plz guide me

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